Some of the World’s Coolest Animals Don’t Have Spines


Photographing animals is never easy, but marine invertebrates—underwater creatures without backbones—are especially tricky: They tend to be small, sometimes they’re transparent, and they’re often quite fast moving. But the effort, Susan Middleton says, is worth it if it helps educate the public about these creatures, which make up more than 98 percent of the known animal species in the ocean and are an important part of our evolutionary history.